Feedback isn’t criticism and feedback isn’t praise. Feedback tells you specifically what you did well and what if anything would make your learning stronger or better. Good feedback encourages you to keep going even when you feel lost.
Before you learn something new you need to know specifically what you are going to learn and how you will know if you learned it. The most effective feedback is ongoing during learning or as soon as possible after instruction. For example, I am currently going to a trainer for strength training. I always thought I could just add a few reps with some weights, do a few sit ups and a few other things and I would be fine. Unfortunately, I ended up hurting myself several times(including a frozen shoulder)and finally just gave up. I am an avid walker but something told me I still needed to add strength training. I found a trainer that I really liked and she was excellent at giving feedback. I had no idea I was holding the weights wrong. I needed to back up and go slowly. Before we start something new she always demonstrates what we will do. I practice with her guiding me and when she catches me doing something wrong she will take hold of my arm for example and guide it. Then I start on my own and she watches me like a hawk to make sure I don’t hurt myself and am using the proper form and timing. Somethings have taken me a very long time to accomplish. After several months I have gotten so much stronger. This kind of coaching with effective, specific and timely feedback is what has made the difference. My trainer lets me know what I am accomplishing too. “You held plank for 30 seconds. I know you can do more. You are doing very well with the 5 pound weights. Your form is great. Lets try the 6 pound weights next time.”
As teachers we give feedback all day long. If you are a teacher and see that some of your students are stuck, check in with your feedback. Is it timely? Is it specific? Does it encourage your student to take on new challenges? For example if you are a kindergarten teacher, you need to employ specific feedback almost immediately. When I taught kindergarten, I made the mistake of giving a paper back the next day. A few of the students recognized that it was theirs but most denied it outright! If you are a high school English teacher you can wait a bit to return something to students with feedback and you may still get results. Just remember that feedback must be specific. A grade alone does not support deep learning. Neither does, “good job!” Comment about what exactly your student did well. Specific feedback on a piece of writing, would be something like, ” I like your idea. You captured my interest in the introduction with your questions and anecdote.” If you just said good job, your student may not understand that they now know how to write an introduction that captures the audience. The more specific feedback you can give while students are practicing and trying it on their own, the more likely they will be to learn the objective. The more students know what they are doing right and what still needs work, the more likely they will be to challenge themselves to keep going.
If you are the learner, and are struggling with something, think about the kind of feedback your are getting. Is it timely? Is it specific? Does it encourage you to take on more challenges or do you just want to give up in frustration.
The other day, I held plank for one minute and ten seconds. That was record for me. My shoulders are doing much better and my goal is 10 pound weights with proper form.
Educatonal literature has many definitions of learning style. Figuring out what works best for you is an invaluable skill. Learning theory suggests that we are visual, auditory or kinesthetic learners. As a teacher and educator for many years I have found that trying to identify students learning styles in order to determine the best instructional strategies to employ is a tall order.
What I know about instruction has a great influence on my own style. What I have noticed in my students and in myself is that my learning style is different based on the task or content I am trying to learn. For some things I can pick up a book, read the directions and do it. A recipe for example. Anything I have a lot of background knowledge about is easy for me to read, listen to and do it. Things that challenge me more require that I interact with the content in some way. Sketch it out in a mind map, write down what I have learned, or perhaps talk about it with someone. For the most challenging learning, usually something I have little background knowledge about, I need an explanation, a demonstration, practice that is guided and a chance to use the knowledge in an authentic way.
However, the most important element of learning for me is getting effective feedback. The more constructive feedback I get along the way the more I learn and the longer I can persist without giving up. Without good feedback, I can flounder and not be very productive I need feedback even for easy learning such as following a recipe. Comments like, wow this tastes great, sends the message that this recipe is worth trying again. Another form of feedback that is equally important is when I make a mistake, perhaps the time I accidentally substituted salt for sugar is a good example! With effective feedback I can learn from my mistakes and persist through frustration
How to deliver effective feedback is the title for another post!
Did you know that a lot of research has been done on educator energy dips. Between Halloween and Christmas is one of the lowest dips for educators. A study done for the Beginning Teacher program in California(BTSA) found that beginning teachers go through several stages during the year. It has been my experience that many of these stages apply to all educators regardless of your role or experience. Here is a graphic describing the phases:
It’s really time to take care of yourself. You know what that means: eat right, exercise(even just a little will help), sleep,etc! When school starts we are all usually filled with excitement and energized by the challenge of the new year. It takes so much energy to get everything up and running. If you are an administrator, for example, you spend countless hours organizing everything, keeping things under control, building supportive and caring relationships and monitoring and adjusting everything. If you are a teacher, you have spent the last three months creating a classroom climate that functions smoothly. You started with nothing and made it happen. This is exhausting. You most likely have come a long way teaching and reinforcing rules and procedures as well as creating a climate that is rich in productive and positive relationships. You may also not be quite where you need your students to be. This can be discouraging. It seems like you are rolling a boulder up hill! November and December can be trying times in schools.
If you can, take a little time to reflect. Work on your own growth mindset! Monitor your own self-talk just as you do for your students or staff. Perhaps you could employ the power of YET!
My students do understand multiplying fractions yet!
My classroom does not function as smoothly as possible yet!
My staff is not functioning as a productive Professional Learning Community yet!
You might also try creating your own set of beliefs that can serve as guideposts for improving your practice.
I believe that through practice, perseverance and hard work my students will learn.
I believe that I can encourage my students to accept challenges.
I believe that I can create a climate where my students will take risks and learn from mistakes.
Every classroom, school, district and state has unique sets of problems, issues and challenges. We have to remember that we can only create change though our circle of influence, but it may be bigger than we think.
If our students have a growth mindset they embrace challenges. They know that they can learn new things. That’s a huge boost to motivation and engagement. It’s really a freeing experience to look forward to a challenge.
Students with a fixed mindset feel that their learning ability is fixed. They think that they do not have the talent to succeed and excel in some subjects or tasks. They might say things like:
- “I’m not good at Math”
- “I’m not an athlete.”
- “I can’t write.”
As parents, teachers and coaches we can change and develop mindsets. One of the first things to think about is how we dole out praise. Here is a link to some videos that illustrate the point.
One of the best ways that Carol Dweck suggests we can influence a growth mindset, is to focus on the process used to learn rather than the finished product or result.
For example highlight strategies, effort or choices:
- “You put a lot of effort into that.”
- “I like the choices you made.”
- “That extra practice really helped you improve!”
- “How did you do that”?
- “How many times did you try it before it turned out the way you wanted it?”
Check on yourself.…
- Which brain illustration represents a fixed mindset, blue or green?
- Which brain illustration represents a growth mindset, blue or green?
answer: blue = fixed, green =growth
Carol Dweck from Stanford has done some very interesting research on our attitudes and basic beliefs about our learning abilities. In her research she identified two categories: fixed mindset and growth mindset. If you have a fixed mindset you most likely believe that your intelligence is fixed and determines your abilities. For example, I am just not good at Math is a belief about your ability to do well in Math. That would be a fixed mindset about Math. If you have a growth mindset, you believe that you can learn new things through dedication and effort. Most of us have attitudes about our ability to learn and accept challenges that fall in both mindsets.
Students with growth mindsets, those who believe that they can learn new things by perseverance and effort do better in school. The good news is that Dr. Dweck has shown that we can teach students, teachers and everyone to have a growth mindset. Mindsets are learned and can be changed. Teachers, parents, coaches and anyone who teaches someone something new can influence their students’ mindsets through effective feedback.
A growth mindset helps you do better in situations where you are challenged. You look at obstacles as walls put there to climb over not to stop you. Even though it may be difficult , you don’t give up easily when things get hard. If you have a fixed mindset you may be discouraged or derailed because you just don’t think you have the ability to meet the challenge. Perhaps someone told you that you just didn’t have the talent to succeed at that sort of challenge.
- Fixed Mindset: Belief that one’s qualities are static. Creates a need to prove oneself over and over.
- Growth Mindset: Belief that your basic qualities are things that can be developed and cultivated through effort. Initial talents and aptitudes can grow through perseverance and experience.
Dr. Dweck has a great website, mindsetsonline.com with lots of interesting videos and ideas for how to influence mindsets. Another great resource has been developed by the Kahn Academy, You Can Learn Anything. Visit it here. Visit this blog again for more on how to use this important research to help your students grow.